Ron Sheeley

Ron Sheeley

5 Circumstances of Quasi Contracts as Per the Indian Contract Act

I. One person is interested in the payment of money, which is why he pays for it. The party whose payment is due was in fact bound by the law to repay. There are 5 features/types of quasi-contractsprovided under sections 68 to 72 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. Under this necessities are supplied to people who are incompetent to contract. The supplier is entitled to recover the price from the property of the incompetent person.

The basis of the obligation is that no one should have the unjust benefit at the cost of the other. If A gets unjust enrichment at the cost of B, A has an obligation to compensate B for the same. A alone pays the amount to C and B, not knowing this fact, pays 100 rupees over again to C. Quasi contracts meaning can be found under the Contract Act, quasi contracts are the contracts that are formed from the order of the courts in absence of any agreement between the contracting parties. As we discussed, these types of quasi contract with examples do not full the conditions given under section 10 of the Contract Act. But these types of contracts are still valid in the eye of the law.

2 As to the primary obligation of one in default under a contract within the Statue of Frauds, see post, Sec. 96. 1 For the classification of obligations as recusable and irrecusable and the division of irrecusable obligations into particular and universal, see Professor Wigmore’s article, “The Tripartite Division of Torts,” 8 Harv. They require that the obligee shall be compensated, not for any loss or damage suffered by him, but for the benefit which he has conferred upon the obligor. You can read our interesting article on the famous Lucy v. Zehmer case dealing with the objective theory of contracts for more insights on this. Similarly, cash paid by restraint which includes abuse, extortion or any such implies, is recoverable. Section 70 – Commitment of Individual enjoying the benefits of a Non-Gratuitous Act.

  • Person B commits to the job, turns down a different job, and shows up on the required day to help with the move.
  • The parties are legally bound by the contract when there is an exchange of a promise for adequate consideration.
  • As stated above, a quasi-contract isn’t a contract within the pure sense.

All these situations are elaborately discussed under Section 68 to Section 72 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. One more contract that has not been mentioned above is quasi-contracts. Since the main agenda of this article is to understand what a quasi-contract is and to analyze the types of quasi-contracts, let us start by understanding what a quasi-contract means. L.L.B student from the Maharaja Sayajirao University, Faculty of Law, Vadodara. This is an exhaustive article that covers quasi-contracts, its types, and other important details in the light of relevant case laws.

The concept of quasi-contract was first discussed within the case of Moses v MacFarlane. In this case, Ruler Mansfield stated that such commitment was based upon the law as well as justice to anticipate undue advantage to one individual at the cost of others. Payment by an interested person is the second situation under which a quasi-contract can be formulated and this situation is explained under Section 69 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. To understand this type of quasi-contract, the main thing to keep in mind is that if a person pays the money on someone else’s behalf, the other person is bound to pay back the money and reimburse the person by law. A quasi contract is a vital agreement developed between two parties who weren’t involved in any sort of a contractual commitment beforehand. A quasi-contract is usually developed under law, to maintain fairness between two parties or to remedy a situation where one party acquires something in a manner that is detrimental to the other.

Obligation imposed in law

Held, the diamond must be returned to ‘H’ as he was entitled to maintain the products found against all but the true owner. Thirdly, it is a right which is available, not against the entire world, but only against an individual or persons, so that it is equivalent to a contractual right in that regard. They are particular, as distinguished from universal, obligations. That is, they are imposed because of a special state of facts and in favor of a particular person, and do not rest upon one at all times and in favor of all persons.

features of quasi contract

However, they are recognizable as contracts in a court of law. They are based upon equitable considerations, but had their origin in the courts of law and are enforced by so-called legal remedies. An implied-in-fact contract is a contract that the court considers to be legally formed and enforceable by considering the facts of the case and the behaviour of the parties.

The case went to the court, and the court then ordered to issue a quasi-contract according to which the recipient has to pay back the cost of the item to the party who paid for the item initially. So, in this case, the benefits of the goods have been enjoyed by the receiving party, so such a receiving party is bound to compensate the former party. Section 72 covers a situation where money has been paid or anything delivered by one person to another, either by mistake or under coercion. According to this section, the person to whom the money has been paid or anything delivered by mistake or under coercion must repay or return it.

Peter supplies John, with certain necessaries suited for his condition in life. In any case, John does not have the money or sanity and fails to pay Peter. This is termed as a Quasi-contract and Peter is entitled to repayment from John’s property.

What Is Addendum To Contract (All You Need To Know)

His definition states that “Every agreement and promise enforceable by law is a contract”. In words of Keener, A quasi-contract is one which has been implied by the law, and it denotes the nature of evidence through which the aggrieved party can claim restitution. Though the party who has been enriched would not set out to assume any obligation, the law will impose it.

features of quasi contract

This is because of law students, advocates, judges and professors like you, who give me satisfaction, hope and the motivation to keep working. The duty to make reasonable efforts to find the original owner of the lost goods. If the lawful charges of the finder amount to two/thirds of the total value of the lost goods. The general meaning of “Necessaries” means, necessaries to sustain life, basic things like food, shelter, clothing and education. These are the things that are necessary to live and without these things, a person could not exist.

The Principle of Unjust Enrichment

The word ‘Quasi’ means having some resemblance to but not all. Similarly, Quasi Contract means laws that are like regular contract law but not quite so. A regular contract should have some essential components to be considered valid. It includes offers, acceptance, consideration, two or more parties who are legally and mentally capable etc. It is generally created only to the extent necessary to prevent unjust enrichment.

When the plaintiff sued on such a ‘contract’ by bringing an action of indebitatus assumpsit, he was not enforcing some consensually assumed obligation, but rather an obligation imposed by law. Even in the absence of a contract, certain social relationships give rise to certain particular duties that certain individuals must fulfill. As they create the same obligations as in the case of standard contracts, these are known as quasi-contracts. The concepts of equity, justice, and good faith are the foundation of Quasi-contracts.

features of quasi contract

Terra, per the court, was only interested in receiving the balance of the purchase price of the lots. Salamon was able to partially complete the construction of both houses, but he was unable to find the financing and purchasers necessary to complete the construction, due to the state of the economy features of quasi contract at that time. The sales agreement was extended by several months, but Salamon was ultimately unable to pay for the lots. The plaintiff must have provided service or tangible goods to the defendant, and the plaintiff had the impression that he would receive payment for such goods or services.

Salient Features of Quasi Contractual Rights

It prevents one party from getting an undue advantage over the cost of other parties because it is based on the principle of Unjust Enrichment. Additionally, one should also keep in mind the term ‘quantum meruit’. This term is used by law courts to determine the extent of severity of the damage, based on which courts decide the reimbursement amount in case of a quasi-contract. When there exists a contract that cannot be legally enforced or which is unjust.

Features of quasi-contracts

After sending notices and not receiving the installment, the government releases notice for the deal of the land . Peter and Oliver enter a contract beneath which Peter concurs to provide a basket of fruits at Oliver’s home and Oliver promises to pay Rs 1,500 after consuming all the fruits. However, Peter incorrectly delivers a basket of fruits at John’s home instead of Oliver’s. Payments made when a person is mistaken about a fact can be recovered, but only if the person paying would have been obligated to pay if the mistake of fact had been true.

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